Resist the temptation to rake or blow your fallen leaves. Instead, mow them into your lawn to provide nutrients for next spring. Why spend money on mulch and fertilizer when you can make your own? Mulched by your lawn mower, your leaves will be torn into fine enough pieces that bacteria will fully decompose them over the winter. Always wait until a dry day for mowing.
Even the hardiest roses have bloomed their last by early November. It’s time to trim your roses down to a height of about fifteen inches. To better protect the bush against winter damage, create a chicken-wire fence about a foot in diameter around your trimmed rose bush and fill it with leaves.
Do Not Cut them Down. We’ve all been trained to cut our perennials to the ground in the fall. Now, experts confirm that, ecologically speaking, leaving those perennials in place is a better idea. Birds will eat the seeds on the tops of stalks throughout the winter. Native bees will winter over in the hollow stems of many flowers. Some butterfly and other beneficial insects winter over in the leaf debris at the base of the plants or under shrubs. So, save yourself some time and, unless the perennial is diseased, leave it up for fall and winter.
Keep those fallen leaves in your shrubs! Yes, for decades we’ve been taught that a tidy landscape required that all those oak and other ‘sturdy’ leaves need to be meticulously pulled out of every shrub and from under every tree. And, for decades, it turns out we’ve been given bad advice. Those fallen leaves provide an additional physical layer of organic materials above ground, providing food, shelter, and nesting or bedding materials for beneficial wildlife. It also gives overwintering protection for a number of insects, which both provides food for bird. The soil around the shrub is also a beneficiary of those leaves. The compost feeds a vast number of microbes in the soil.
There’s nothing more forlorn than spring bulbs that never got planted. In our part of the country, late October and early November are prime planting times because it allows bulbs to begin growing roots before the ground freezes. If time has gotten away from you, you can still plant later in the month: the trick is to add a layer of mulch over the planted bulbs. The mulch will slow the process of the ground freezing, giving bulbs a few precious weeks to establish roots.
If you had a vegetable garden this season, everything ought to be out of it by early November. Even Brussels sprouts have had a good frost and are ready to pick. You can save yourself a rototilling next spring by covering your now-bare garden with several inches of mulched leaves from your lawn. Over the course of the winter, those leaves will break down, adding nutrients to the soil, and making your garden ready to plant next April or May.
Got arborvitae or other evergreens that deer love? The best deterrent is bird netting placed loosely around the tree or shrub. You want your evergreens to keep getting light and air to keep them healthy. Wrapping an evergreen in burlap is exactly the wrong prescription: it cuts off sunlight and smothers the plant, all while providing a comfortable winter home for insects and rodents.
Are you thinking about a ‘living’ Christmas tree this year? You won’t purchase the tree until December, but you can do yourself (and the tree) a great favor by preparing the hole into which you’ll place it now, rather than trying to dig through frozen soil next January. Once dug, covert the hole and the soil with a tarp to prevent both from freezing solid.
Time to Cover Up Perennials
Here are some other general guidelines for putting your perennial garden to bed for the winter.
Cutting Back: The general rule is to leave any plant that has green, good looking foliage and cut back those that have turned yellow or brown. You shouldn’t cut down woody plants such as lavender, roses, and Russian Sage, or early spring bloomers such as creeping phlox, candytuft, Euphorbias, or soapwort.
Leaves: Although chopped leaves are great mulch and soil amendment for perennial gardens, whole leaves that fall into the garden should be removed.
Grasses: Most grasses are left in the garden because they supply winter interest in otherwise bare beds. Cut them down from February on if they start to look tattered.
Soil Amendment: Late fall is a great time to spread compost or composted manure over the surface of a perennial bed. All you need is about an inch of compost or manure.
Transplanting: Be sure to water your transplants well, and apply a layer of dark compost on the top of the soil to absorb the heat of the sun. When the soil is kept warmer the roots will grow and reestablish more quickly.
pH Adjustments: If a soil test has indicated that your perennial garden is too acidic, lime can be applied at this time of year. (Briggs Nursery, North Attleborough MA)